Thursday, February 20, 2020

Plagiarism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 4

Plagiarism - Essay Example I acknowledge the fact that I have copied word-for-word but most of the text was not paraphrased or copied at all. In no way did I mean any disrespect for the work and the ideas laid down by the writers and reproduce it as my own creation. I apologize again for the plagiarized portion of my paper as I did not intentionally indulge in this activity. I am student with different cultural background and English writing is not my forte at the moment. I am having problems in writing assignments because I have problems in paraphrasing texts from books because of my English and for the said reason I copied word for word. In my home country, the teaching and writing practices taught to us are very different. There is no concept of plagiarism therefore we could copy word-for-word without referencing it. Due to different cultural backgrounds I am trying to understand the learning styles of this country and this reputed institute. I did not use the two required materials as I was unable to find the relevant material. I acknowledge the fact that I did not conduct an extensive research regarding the materials as I was under medication. In addition to my health position, I had to complete my papers and reports on other subjects. In the midst of these activities I was unable to time myself appropriately and draw up a proper time table. Although this sort of act does not justify my actions still I am deeply sorry for what I have done. Following my act of plagiarism in regards to the prima facie case, I have been summoned to attend a counseling meeting.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Historic Preservation and the Imagined West Essay - 3

Historic Preservation and the Imagined West - Essay Example What had been original downtown areas went into decline as growing populations demanded more space, modern buildings, as well as roads and highways that take them there. Chasing the In the 1960s and 1970s, there was a renewed interest in urban renewal. According to Morley, three cities that she examined determined that what was old could be revitalized and made useful and profitable. Much of the trend towards this renewal (translation: rewriting) of history was started by Dana Crawford in the mid 1960s, before whose time urban renewal meant erasing the past and rebuilding a future vision. These efforts resulted in many historic structures being torn down and destroyed. Unfortunately, although Crawford and her group did save some historic buildings, much of the revitalization she accomplished was of Denver’s sports mania. If General William H. Larimer, an early settler of the area and for whom the street is named were to return, the only way he would recognize what today’s preservationists call Larimer Street would be if he was a Broncos fan. Soon after the Larimer Street project started showing signs of success, Crawford took her preservation carpetbag to other areas of the city, most notably the southern downtown area. As the profit news spread, other areas such as Albuquerque and Seattle took note. As with Denver, Albuquerque and Seattle also saved a few historic buildings in their utopian visions, but for all their efforts to save history and work with what is, Morley says that they failed to make authentic places (Morley 16). Albuquerque, for example, saved several old residences, churches, and commercial structures in the Old Town. Seattle’s Pioneer Square was the old central part of the city, but a trip through the Pike Place market, where hundreds of vendors loudly hawk their wares is as Morley describes it, â€Å"an honest place in a phony

Monday, January 27, 2020

Pel Company History

Pel Company History Pak Elektron was setup in 1956 as a Public Limited Company with the object of initially producing transformers, switchgears, and electric motors. AEG experts and PEL personnel carried out the designing and production of this equipment jointly. After the conclusion of joint venture agreement with AEG Saigol Group acquired the PEL COMPANY in October 1978. The company floated its shares to the general public and was listed on Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) and Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE). In 1980, Appliances Division was established and in 1981 its starts the production of Window Type Air Conditioners with the technical collaboration of General Corporation of Japan. This air conditioner was well received in the market for its quality. Subsequently in 1987 the production of Refrigerators and Deep Freezers was started. In 1993 the company has started the assembly of Compressors for Refrigerators and Deep Freezers under technical collaboration with Messrs. NECCHI COMPRESSORI of Italy. It was in early 70s that PEL became known in overseas markets due to its quality. The company started its export to countries like Saudi Arabia, Abu Dhabi, Qatar etc. Later on PEL supplied electrical equipments to various other countries in the Middle East, Far East and Africa with great success. 1.2 Vision To providing engineering goods and services through continuous improvement 1.3 Mission Statement To provide quality products services to the complete satisfaction of our customers and maximize returns for all stakeholders through optimal use of resources, To focus on personal development of our employees to meet future challenges, To promote good governance, corporate values and a safe working environment with a strong sense of social responsibility CHAPTER NO 2 BUSINESS OPERATIONS This chapter has been divided in five section, Section one described the product in which PEL deal. In second section business operation analysis are given. In section third SWOT analysis is given. In fourth section future strategy is given. In fifth section competitive analysis is given. 2.1 Organizational Structure 2.1 Division of PEL There are two division of PEL: Power Division Appliances Division This division is comprised for four departments. 2.1.1 Power Division The most powerful revenue generating business unit of PAK Elektron, produces Transformers, Switchgears and Energy Meters for the public sector such as KESC Karachi Electric Supply Corporation, LESCO and PESCO. They provide these three products: Production Transformers Production Switchgears Production Energy Meters During the year 2006, PEL retained its market leadership in the Power Equipment market, increasing its market share from 33% in 2005 to 36% in 2006 in the switchgear market and also maintained share of 35% in 2006 as well in the energy meters market. PELs leadership in the Power Equipment market is largely due to its strong Research and Development knowledge and high product quality. Production Transformers PEL has vast experience in design and manufacturing of standard and special purpose transformers up to 33kV and up to 6000kVA ratings. PELs transformers have been successfully type tested for Impulse voltage and short circuit tests at KEMA, (Holland), HVSC Lab, Rawat (Pakistan), NIP (Pakistan) and UET (Pakistan). Production Energy Meters Another successful and most powerful department of power division is its energy meter production department that manufactures Electro-mechanical Energy Meters under license from ABB-USA.The quality of PEL meters has been certified by KEMA Laboratories (Holland) and conforms to IEC 521, SGS Yarsley, and U.K, has certified PEL Energy Meter plant for ISO 9002. Following types of meters are manufactured: Electro mechanical Single phase Three phase_ Direct connected STATIC /DIGITAL Single Phase Three Phase Directed connected Production Switchgears Switchgears are one of the highly technical and specialized power products of PEL. They are produced for indoor and outdoor installations complying with international installation standards. A major customer for this product is WAPDA. The Company provides one year after sales service warranty to WAPDA, KESC and other customers. In Switchgear, PEL enjoys market share of 33 % while competitors are Alstom, Siemens and Fico. Power Transformers Owing to massive growth in power sector, demand for power transformers is also growing proportionately for all ratings from 66KV to500 KV. PEL has stepped into this activity by starting the manufacturing of 132 KV transformers, being the most demanded rating, and for these purposes has formed a strategies partnership by signing the two agreements. Based on the demand forecast of Power Transformers for WAPDA, KESC and other projects, PELs market share is initially targeted to be 20%, growing in five years. 2.1.2 Appliances Division The Appliances Division of PEL is the pioneer manufacturer of electrical goods in Pakistan. The Divisions product portfolio comprises of air-conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, microwave ovens, and split air-conditions. PEL is one of the three leading players in the home appliances market. The Company is engaged in the manufacturing and/or marketing of the following home appliances. The Companys Appliances Division contributed significantly to its sales in 2005-06. The main reasons for this growth are increase in market sizes along with PELs strong brand image accompanied with its extensive dealership network spread nationwide with over one thousand outlets and an after sales service network with over 100 workshops. Another major reason for the increasing growth in the home appliances market is the easy availability of consumer financing at lower interest rates. PEL itself is involved in selling its products through a marketing wing for sales against consumer financing. Availability of Chinese products at very competitive prices has not proven to be that big a threat to the local industry. This is because of the improved quality of the local products and cost efficiencies due to economies in product and raw material purchases hence making the local products competitive with the Chinese imports. In 2005-06, the Appliances Division contributed around 53%to the Companys sales whereas the Power Division made up the remaining 47%. Refrigerators and Split air conditioners were the main source of revenue in the Appliances Division, whereas transformers and energy meters are the main revenue drivers in the Power Division. The Appliance Division accounted for 44% of Net Sales during the year ended June 30th 2007. Refrigerators and Split air conditioners were the main source of revenue in the Appliances. The Company is engaged in the manufacturing and/or marketing of the following home appliances. Manufacturing Trading Refrigerators Microwave Ovens Air Conditioners (Split) Conditioners (Window) Deep Freezer Floor Standing ACs Generators Washing Machines 2.2 Business Process Analysis (Industrial Analysis) 2.2.1 Transformers PEL has vast experience in design and manufacturing of standard and special purpose transformers. New technical designs for improved efficiency and quality against special orders of non-standard transformers are continuously being explored. These transformers are available for various applications. Distribution Transformers Auto Transformers Furnace Transformers Welding Transformers Transformers are normally supplied in a period of 3 4 months after the receipt of orders from respective distribution companies of WAPDA and varied supply time for private customers. The Company provides one year after sales service warranty to WAPDA, KESC and private sector customers. 2.2.2 Energy Meters PEL manufactures three types of energy meters; Single Phase and Poly Phase. The electro-mechanical energy meters are manufactured under license from ABB of USA. The quality of PEL meters has been certified by KEMA Laboratories of Holland. PEL meters are superior than others due to their ability to lower revenue losses through accurate precise operation and reduction of maintenance expenses. Single Phase energy meters provide maintenance-free operations over a long period and accurate measurement of electrical energy. Poly Phase energy meters improve load performance and precision accuracy. The meters require minimum maintenance and can withstand abuse from surges and magnetic tampering. Three phase digital electronic meter with dual tariff capability recently launched and supplies to WAPDA has begun this year. Energy meter orders from WAPDA are received annually and their supply period is 9 -10 months. Energy meters to KESC are supplied in a period of 3 4 months. The Company provides one year after sales service warranty to WAPDA, KESC and Others. 2.2.3 Switchgears Switchgears are one of the highly technical and specialized power products of PEL. They are produced for indoor and outdoor installations complying with international installation standards. A major customer for this product is WAPDA. The Company provides one year after sales service warranty to WAPDA, KESC and other customers. 2.2.4 Refrigerators PEL Refrigerators were introduced in 1987 with features such as VCM (Vinyl Coated Metal) coating; stylish finishing and auto drain systems. PEL refrigerators carry compressor made by Danfoss of Germany. The low noise compressor is extremely silent and keeps the refrigerator running smoothly. Furthermore, the compressor is resilient to fluctuations in voltage level, thereby proving to be a more durable product. PEL is actively involved in the manufacturing and trading of refrigerators, which is a major source of consistent growth. The refrigerators business contributes to 48% of the Companys sales and this trend is expected continue in years to come (which is reflected in the figures for 2005-06 in the table below). 2.3 SWOT Analysis 2.3.1 Strengths PEL has the following strengths and is in more competitive position in these areas than its competitors. Following are the main strong points of PEL. Strong Brand Image PEL has created the strong brand image in the mind of the customers through higher quality and low price. The customers of the PEL always prefer to buy the PEL home appliances like WRAC split AC and refrigerators whenever they wanted to buy. Strong Dealer Network It is also the plus point for the PEL that it has also developed the strong dealer network in the market. The dealers are always trying to sell the PEL appliance to the customers because they know there are high margin in the PEL products. They can get more money after selling the PEL products. The management of PEL also provides more incentives to their dealers than their competitors 2.3.1. 3 Free Customer Service PEL provides free customer service for one year to its customers. So the customers always buy the PEL products due to its free service and it becomes loyal customer for the PEL. PEL always provides help to their customers for repWRAC, Refrigerators and other items. PEL always make efforts to satisfy the customers. 2.3.1. 4 M Arket Leader In WRAC (Window Room Air Conditioner) It is another strong point that PEL is a market leader in WRAC. The window room air conditioner is more demanded by the customers than its competitors air conditioners because it has more durability in operating systems and cools the room in few minutes. PEL always strives to provide the innovative features in WRAC. PEL air conditioner is cheaper and has a higher quality than others WRAC. Thats why customers always purchase the PEL window air conditioner. Leader In Power Division In Pakistan the PEL is almost leader in power division. Almost all power division are provided by PEL to wapda. 2.3.2 Weaknesses Overcome on these weaknesses then it can become a market leader in the home appliance. Like other companies PEL has some weaknesses in operating the business. If PEL loses some competitive edge in the following points: Lack Of Advertisement PEL was a very lack of advertisement according to other appliances companies. So it is a big weakness of PEL. Lack Of Product Range PEL has introduced more products of consumer items but there are more needs to develop new consumer items like PEL washing Machines, Vacuum cleaner and other items. Due to lack of product Range, Company cannot earn more profit because consumers have high demand of these products and they say that if company is investing in these products then we can keep all PEL items and we never need to keep others company products. Financial Problems Sometimes PEL faces the financial problems because its stocks are so much piled up in the stores that create the problem of cash flow because when the stocks are not sold and the production is in process for 24 hours a day than the company faces such problems. 2.3.3 Opportunities For the PEL there are more opportunities for expansion the business. If PEL realize that opportunities then it will be more fruitful and profitable for the company. Exploration of Market In Pakistan PEL has the opportunity to explore the market in all over the Pakistan. Even though PEL introduce its products in all cities of Pakistan but there are so many places that have the capacity to absorb the PELs products. Increase in Product Range It is the main opportunity for the PEL that it can increase its product range that will be a more profitable for the company. There are more needs to develop new consumer items like PEL washing Machines, Vacuum cleaner and other items. Due to lack of product Range, Company cannot earn more profit because consumers have high demand of these products. Export Opportunity PEL Company has also the opportunity to export their products in other international countries like UAE, SAUDI ARABIA, and other Arabic and African countries. 2.3.4 Threats PEL Company in such a competitive era has many threats as well. These threats are for the present situations and future. Company should make its policies and strategies according to these threats. So following are the main threats for the PEL: Strong Competition There is very strong competition for the home appliance in the market. So every company tries to come in the number 1 position for achieving the maximum shares in the market. Chinas Product Chinas products are another threat for the Pakistani companies because these products are cheaper than the Pakistani products. An even china product not well in quality but it is comparatively in low prices than the consumers home appliance that are manufactured by the indigenous company. Price War As there is stiff competition in the home appliance market that will cause the price war. So every company reduces the prices of its products to increase the sales. It will not only reduce the profit margin of the company but also reduce the quality of products. So price war is the main threats for all the companies, which are operating in these products. Instability Of Government The rapid changes in governments will become threats for the companies because every government adopts its own policies for the industries. So it increases the uncertainty for the investors who want to invest heavy amount in their new projects. 2.4 Future Strategy PEL is one of the most widely recognized brands in the domestic refrigerator market. It is the second largest local manufacturer and one of the leading brands. For the past four years the Companys market share growth averaged 2% per annum. With continuous efforts in RD, PEL is concentrating on quality of product and cost minimization. The Company is considering technical collaboration for value addition through planned capital expenditures. Increased sales of manufactured refrigerators coupled with sales of split air conditioners are the major factors contributing growth in the appliances business. Other products are also being introduced as a part of Companys strategy to broaden its product range. 2.5 Competitive Analysis The prices are concerned PEL is charging reasonable prices to its customer for all of its microwaves comparatively from others. Prices charged by National, which is a multinational firm, are very higher in comparison with others because it uses special Japanese parts in its microwaves and ensures high quality and performance and only rich class shows interest in National Products. According to the retailers information, people are satisfied with the prices charged by PAK Elektron but still their preferences go along with Dawlence microwaves because of its highly created awareness. CHAPTER NO 3 LEARNING AS STUDENT This chapter has been divided into four sections In section one, I have discussed my duties as a internee during internship, In the second section, I mentioned accomplishments, In the third section I briefed my problems which I faced during internship and in the last and fourth section I offered that how this internship experience impact on my carrier. 3.1 Learning and Duties In finance department there are three sections. Corporate section Leasing and pledge Budgeting 3.1.1 Corporate Section In corporate finance I worked in different units. Firstly, I learned that how letter of credit works in PEL. L.C Section I started working for the Letter of Credit Section. They gave me an introduction and shared important points. Mr. Asad, Senior Executive supervised me in this section. Letter of Credit: A document issued mostly by a financial institution, used primarily in trade finance, which usually provides an permanent payment undertaking. The letter of credit can also be source of payment for a transaction, meaning that redeem the letter of credit will pay an exporter. Letters of credit are used primarily in international trade transactions of significant value, for deals between a supplier in one country and a customer in another. In such cases the International Chamber of Commerce Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits applies.The parties to a letter of credit are usually a beneficiary who is to receive the money, the issuing bank of whom the applicant is a client, and the advising bank of whom the beneficiary is a client. There are different types of LC: a) L.C at Sight: In L.C at sight, Our Company opens an L.C in a bank which provides a guarantee to the exporter that he will pay the due amount. Now, the exporter takes these documents to his bank and asks the bank to give him money so that he can start working on the required contract. When he fulfills the contract, he goes to his bank and provides the required documents to prove that he has fulfilled the contract. Now his bank sends these documents to our bank and our bank ask us to confirm the clarity of the documents and if cleared then these documents are called cleared documents. Then lastly we will pay the bank the due amount. b) Usance L.C: In usance L.C the contract between the two parties require the importer to pay in a longer term e.g. 3 or 6 months after receiving the material from exporter. Our bank will pay the contract amount after the agreed period. c) INLAND LCIn land LC means LC open in a same country. Guarantees I started working on the Guarantees, Leasing, Finance against Merchandise and Cash Financing Section. They just gave me an introduction and shared important points. Mr. Tahir Mahmood, Senior Executive supervised me in this section. Guarantees Section: Secret behind PELs success and increasing market share is its guarantees section that actively works to get every order either for appliances or for power of the company by speedily participating for the contract with the help of Tender Bonds of Guarantees. Types of Guarantees Tender guarantee ( Bid guarantee ) Balance of payment guarantee Advance payment guarantee Performance bond guarantee Long Term Loans PEL acquired a long-term loan to finance the import of machinery. Recently PEL has purchased some machinery from China for Digital Energy Meters. The process for long-term loan is explained in following. Preparation OF Feasibility Report: Following points are considered while preparing the feasibility report. Financial Statement Cost of the project. This includes operating assets (land, building, Vehicles, furniture, capital expenditure and means of finance) Project profit and loss account Projected statement of changes in financial position. Financial Analysis Pay back period of total investment Ratio analysis Breakeven analysis Schedules Sales forecast statement Total production cost. Working capital Loan repayment schedule Bank Feasibility Report Bank studies the feasibility report and prepare report and prepare its own feasibility report to see where it would be feasible to sanctioned loan to company or not. Offering the Letter: The bank, if it is satisfied with the feasibility report then send offering letter. It has, Amount sanctioned Mark up rate Charge over fixed assets Tenor Installment periodS Interest payment period Acceptance If company accepts the terms, it must respond with this period. Negotiation: Negotiation between bank and company takes place to change certain conditions of offer letter and it acceptable for both parties. A second draft of the offer letter is prepared with changes and signs of bank and CEO OF PAK ELEKTRON LIMITED. Creation of Charges: A charge is created in favor of the bank to secure its loan with following documents affidavit. It is an undertaking by the company that will follow all conditions. Form 10. It contains the particulars of assets against which charge is created. All the above documents are submitted with registrar against whom a Certificate of Registration of Mortgage is issued. Types of charges Exclusive Ranking Pari passu Loan Repayment Schedule: This schedule is prepared to show the mark up principal and total installment value for whole tenure. PRE-Shipment Pre-shipment is the last section of the finance department. The pre-shipment report may be summarized in the following 5 tasks which are as follows: Tender Bidding Acceptance Purchase order Inspection 3.1.2 Leasing Section This section works in order to fulfill the corporate production, personnel and operational needs such as Machineries, Auto Mobiles and office equipments. It enters into the Buying Contracts always with the one who offers best terms and conditions as well as the best Internal Rate of Return to the Company. Direct Leasing In case of auto mobiles, a bank makes the pay order and gives it to the dealer on the behalf of firm. Firm pay the principle plus interest in installment to bank. PEL can do leasing with AL-Baraka bank. They paid approximately 15%interes on them. Indirect or Machinery Leasing Machinery is imported from china and other countries e.g. USA etc. incase of imported machinery PEL has an LC opened by particular bank. The LC issuing bank deals with the exporters bank and makes payment to it. In machinery dealing the import department of the company is involved. Import department informs finance that they do not have enough funds to make a lump sum payment of machinery, and then leasing facility is used. A third bank called the leasing bank (from whom PEL takes leasing facility) makes payment to issuing bank and acquires papers of the machinery. PEL then makes regular lease payments to the leasing bank and finally acquires the papers of the machinery. Leasing bank also sends external auditors to PEL to verify whether the machinery is actually of the value quoted, whether it is in proper condition, durability of the machinery etc. 3.1.2 Working Capital Finance This type of loan is secured against: Pledge Hypothecation Pledge It may be constructive or actual. Constructive pledge is that in which goods are not taken by bank rather keep them in companys good own under its own security. In case of actual pledge, bank holds the possession of goods. Logistics: The logistics department comprises a part of the finance department. It is headed by Mr. M. Hanif and further consists of a senior accounts officer, two junior executives and two accountants. The basic task carried out by the persons working in the logistics section is: daily check on production daily check on stock (materials and finished goods) controlling the production plan for the future control on orders in hand Materials imported by PEL basically remains in bank custody. The bank makes payments for these materials to the foreign suppliers and releases them to PEL as per payments by them. The bank further higher mucaddam companies/clearing agents to watch over and monitor these materials. The materials are generally store in PEL premises. Material requirement for appliances and power good manufacturing are different hence their requisition are also different. PEL uses cash financing and various other credit facility provided by the bank. Raw materials are imported using the different financing facilities. Materials are then use to make finished goods. The materials when enter the production cycle a term as work-in-process (WIP). WIP is hypothecated and loans taken against it. Then a portion of finished goods produced are further pledged and payments for raw materials are made through it. The whole procedure must be carried out in a timely way with correct information reaching at the right time from factory to material section, so that materials may be requested and obtained at the right time without delay. Hypothecation Of Stock In this the finance is given on work in process goods. 3.1.3 Budgeting Section Getting started from the first day after formal introduction of staff, MR. Masood Tahir, Manager Finance PEL assigned task to Mr. Amer Khawaja (Manager Budgeting) and Sheikh Zaigham Ali (Finance Executive) Finance Budgeting section of my supervision. Forecasting for next year He told me management prepared Sales plan Production plan Material purchase plan Direct labor F.O.H ( factory overhead) Selling expense /administrative expense Other income Financial cost Mr. Zaigham told me PEL has two Divisions 1st Power Division, which deals in the manufacturing of Distribution Transformers Power Transformer Power Project Electric meters Switch gears 2nd Appliances Division includes production of Refrigerators, Deep freezer, Micro-wave Ovens, Splits AC. Trading items (Imported goods) water dispensor, washing machine, window AC, T .V, Generator. Sales Plan Sales plan made by marketing department for appliance and power division. Forecasting Base on last five year sales which is approved by marketing G.M. Types of Sales Export sales ( Afghanistan , India) C.M.D ( Consumer marketing department e.g Govt employees ) Corporate sales ( Institutional e.g hospitals , colleges etc ) Private sales ( for bankers , G.M reference 50% discount ) Metro / Makro sales Production Plan Production plan made model wise for refrigerator, split AC, microwave oven and deep freezer. Material Purchase Plan For material purchase PEL open L/C. Direct Labour: Decide labor quantity required. Labor rate decided. Other Income Scrap sales B pair goods Financial Cost mark -up on borrowing demrage cost ( pay extra amount after exceeding the shipment days ) The beginning of every year with the help of forecasts and then latterly throughout the year they compare it with the actual transactions of these two divisions. I did Afterwards, he showed me the budgets of both divisions which are prepared at some price and cost calculations of Transformers for him and I also did different ratio analysis based on last year results. Then, I was assigned to compare the production budget of refrigerator section of the production department with the actual results yet achieved which I performed and show to him the variances till date. 3.2 Problems Encountered There was no such problem but at same time it was very confusing because they mostly prefer to tell orally rather to practical work that make us ambiguous in some manner when we want to learn more and more. 3.3 Accomplishment we were keen to know about different section of finance department specially in LC opening (letter of credit) how to get loan from banks and why made pledges. We frequently analyses the Lc. 3.4 How Experience Impact On My Career During my internship I learned lot of knowledge that is helpful in my future planning and future career. I learned how to interact with senior management and get their experience that is helpful in my career. Due to my internship habit of regularity and punctuality. 3.5 Knowledge Acquired I had chance of acquiring a lot of new knowledge because it was my first professional experience of working real world of financial brainstorming. It was great experience that how plans and decisions are made executed. It elaborate that how risk involve in each step of decision making and how efficiently management cope up themselves with their competenciese. Conclusion In the nutshell, I want to bring some new idea that PEL should initiate some social benefit programs and try build their Goodwill by participating in the society. I found that the people while purchasing for a certain item take great i

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Essay --

Mrs. Kasper AP Literature 10 February 2014 â€Å"Knowing yourself is the beginning of all wisdom,† urged Aristotle. Wisdom contains many qualities that are valuable to have. These qualities are experience, knowledge, and good judgment. These traits and abilities are essential in insight and understanding that attribute to an effective person. Wisdom is a virtue that develops as one is able to learn from experiences and mistakes. However, the wisdom that Aristotle believed in went beyond the average wisdom of being able to understand concepts or have insight different from others. The wisdom Aristotle believed in was practical wisdom. Practical wisdom is the ability to do the right thing, at the right time, for the right intent. According to Aristotle, this virtue is what makes all the other virtues a possibility. It is practical wisdom that gives one the ability to change one’s flaws because it is a characteristic that is bound with action and reason. It is the ability to have the information and apply it corre ctly. Along with the ability of understanding others, also comes self-awareness, and with the ability to apply action, one can develop and change for the better. In the novel, Pride and Prejudice, by Jane Austen, Charlotte Lucas possesses limited self-awareness; she is aware of the consequences that can come from her choices, but doesn’t choose to apply action for her own self-contentment. Mr. Bennet is also aware at times of his behavior, which is evident through his intelligence and wit, but doesn’t choose to take action, therefore lacking practical wisdom. Through the various conversations and narrations, Austen takes a resolute stand about the need for men to not only understand others, but to know oneself enough to turn we... ...ove his lack of responsible action, and Charlotte Lucas’s inability to take action on achieving contentment, serve as character foils to Elizabeth, illuminating her ability to evaluate her mistakes and take action for the better good. Bennet dismissed his chance to change not because he couldn’t, but because he did not want to. Although he was an intelligent man, it does no good to be smart if one cannot apply intelligence towards self-awareness and towards applying action in turning foibles into strengths Charlotte, also an intelligent character, failed to apply a balance of reasoning and action in her decision, sacrificing a lifetime of happiness for comfort and economic stability. Therein lies the value of Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice: It emphasizes that in life, self-awareness is nothing, unless action and reasoning are used in every opportunity to change.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model Paper

As a child develops, the surroundings and people they interact with can have an impact in their development. Bronfenbrenner is a developmental psychologist who created the bioecological model of human development. The purpose of Bronfenbrenner’s model is to analyze the different connections humans make in the process of socialization. The bioecological model consists of four main areas â€Å"in which relationships and interactions take place to form patterns that affect human development† (Berns, 2013, 2010). The patterns that are formed from the relationships an interactions being created can be either positive or negative influences that can affect human development. The first system is the microsystem; in this system children are directly affected by the interactions they encounter â€Å"in a particular small setting† (Berns, 2013, 2010). For instance, family, school, peers, media, and their community are part of a child’s microsystem. The second system is the mesosystem; in this system the mesosystem is reflected in the microsystem due to the connections it creates with the child’s small settings. An example of this can be the child’s community collaborations which influences the child’s development. The third system is the exosystem; in this system the settings in which the child is not directly involve, yet the child is still affected in their microsystem. For instance, the child’s parents’ work can affect the child do to financial problems or stressed. The fourth system is the macrosystem; in this system â€Å"the society and subculture to which the developing person belongs, with particular reference to the belief system, lifestyles, patterns of social interaction, and life changes (Berns, 2013, 2010). For example, being part of a religion influences your life and therefore your human development as well. Indeed, Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model depicts the human development in these four basic structures. This essay will explain my own reflection of my childhood and the influences from each of the ecological systems. Microsystem: As Berns states, â€Å"the family is the setting that provides nurturance, affection, and a variety of opportunities†¦the primary socializer of the child in that it has the most significant impact on the child’s development † (Berns, 2013, 2010). In my case, my biological mother was not able to provide â€Å"nurturance, affection, and a variety of opportunities† and therefore affected my development. My mother’s inability to provide these essential elements affected my stability in my life. Berns explains that â€Å"this early disadvantage will persist and even worsen as the child progresses through school unless intervention, such as that provided by some quality child-care programs, can modify the opportunities at home and in school† (Berns, 2013, 2010). My personal stability worsen as I developed, but it was able to get modified at some point in my life do to my adoption. My adopted parents were able to provide those essential elements and therefore helped me established a normal stable life. Further, Bern claims that â€Å"teachers encouraged the development of various skills and behaviors by being role models and by providing motivation for children to succeed in learning† (Berns, 2013, 2010). My ninth grade teacher, Miss. Dotson influenced my life directly. She was able to provide motivation in my life in the sense of being able to succeed in my learning in order to attend college and receive good grades. She became my role model and I wanted to be just like her, a teacher. I began to realize that having an education was essential as my life developed because without one, my life would be a disappointment. Due to her support and motivation, I was able to become the student that I am today. Moreover, Bern states that â€Å"the community, or neighborhood on a smaller scale, is the main setting in which children learn by doing† (Berns, 2013, 2010). Growing up, I did not live in the safest community which influenced my views of where I lived. I remember that the only thing I wanted to do was to move to a safer place. The noises of sirens and police caused feared in me and I did not want to conform to continue leaving in an environment like that. As I grew older, I knew that I wanted to move away as soon as I was able to. When I had the chance to do so, I did and I was able to experience a safer community and a better life. From this, I learned that the communities we reside in can have significant influences in our lives. Mesosystem: Schools ability to bring forward guest speakers can have influences in the students. For instance, while attending an ASB camp, I was able to meet this great guest speaker who influenced my own life. I may not remember his name, but I do remember the words he said that inspired me to change my life around. He was the product of abusive parents and although he went through some hardships while growing up, he decided to change his life around and not end up in drugs, gangs, or any kind of trouble. His speech thought me that although I was abused; I had the chance and power to change my life around too. I was able to become a successful young woman in my academic development and I am still striving for the best. What I learned from this experience was that guest speakers and schools connection to my life was very influential in my development. Having the opportunity to attend my fifth grade field trip-science camp, I realized that it had an impact in my development. Being away from home for a couple of days, made me realized how important the care of my family was at that time. Going to school for a couple of hours a day was different than being away from home for a couple of days. The interrelationship between my family, the school, and the field trip was interesting because I did not know how it felt to be away from my family. The realization of this instigated me to appreciate both my family and my school more than I thought I did. As Bern states, â€Å"the more numerous the qualitative links or interrelationships between the child’s microsystems, the more impact they have on socialization† (Berns, 2013, 2010). Therefore, the impact of appreciation of my microsystem also made an impact in my socialization skills as to what situations to appreciate at certain times. After leaving my house for college, I had to move in with one of my aunts in San Diego. Although I was no longer living at home, I still visit my family. During this change, I had to cope with two different life styles. For instance, living with my aunt I had different duties and responsibilities that I did not have at home. However, when both families got together I knew how to behave in both scenarios. This experienced helped me understand behavior in my life. I no longer behave one certain way because I developed ew behaviors depending on the setting I was in. Exosystem: As Berns states, â€Å"the exosystem refers to settings in which children are not active participants, but that affect them in one of their microsystems† (Berns, 2013, 2010). In my case, my father’s job was something that affected me. For instance, his stress level was always high and therefore he tended to be upset most of the time. Also, he did not have enough play time with me like I would of like to. Although I never went to his job, it still affected my development. I remember while growing up, my sister and I tended to avoid my father since we did not have that connection with him like we did with our mother because she was a homestay wife. As seen, parent’s jobs can have major impacts in a child’s microsystem. Another example that also affected my microsystem was school budget cuts. Although I was not directly involved with the school board, their decisions affected my microsystem. For instance, my freshman and sophomore year of high school the school did not hired a professional cheer coach due to budget cuts. This affected our ability to learn new techniques and therefore compete. During this time, we had to teach ourselves what we knew and the overall performance of our squad was not to the standards of a high school cheerleading team. From this, I learned that outside decisions of our school board really had an impact in our school, but most importantly us, the students. Furthermore, social services impacted my life in the sense of the process of my adoption. For instance, having to go through the hardships of getting adopted was already a struggle, but the process itself was even harder. In addition, I remember just wanting to have a family to love and care for me, yet I had them in front of me and I could not be with them. Social services were not something I directly had a connection with, yet they still impacted my development throughout those years. During that time, my emotions were unstable because I knew the family that was trying to adopt me loved me, but the process was too long to wait for. Macrosystem: Berns explains that â€Å"the fourth basic structure is viewed as patterns, or sets of instructions, for exosystems, mesosystems, and microsystems† (Berns, 2013, 2010). For instance, when I started my freshman year of college, I was persuaded into joining a sorority on campus. When experiencing the different things that one has to do in order to be part of their subculture, I notice that I was beginning to develop new beliefs, different social interactions, different lifestyle, and most importantly my life was changing dramatically. These changes were beginning to affect my other systems. The person I was becoming was someone I did not expect to be and therefore, I decided to drop out of it and enjoy the person that I truly am. Another example that was part of my exosystem was when I was part of my high school cheerleading squad. Being part of this subculture I developed a whole new lifestyle. I remember saying that cheer was what I woke up to, did most of the day, and dreamed all night about. It sure was not easy being a cheerleader since I also had to manage my academic achievement and my role as a daughter. At times, cheerleading affected my ability to communicate with my parents because I would leave early in the morning and did not get back home till about eight or nine o’clock at night. As seen, our macrosystem can have significant influences in our other systems due to its connection it creates. As a Latino woman, we identify ourselves with our race and culture. We share similar characteristics and beliefs that other races and cultures don’t. Due to this, being Latino is part of my macrosystem. Growing up I knew my family was different than some of my classmate’s families. For instance, some of my classmates did not speak Spanish and did not eat the same things that I did. Also, they did not celebrate the same things I did. For this reason, my race made me different and I learned to appreciate who my family and I were. Conclusion: Indeed, Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model depicts the four systems that help our human development. Overall, I learned that depending on the child’s life, their socialized abilities can either be broken or created, but at the end each interaction they make affects the socialization skills they develop throughout their lives. Reflecting upon the different systems and how they directly impact one’s life, has changed my views in the way socialization takes part in our lives and how I develop new interactions with others in my development as a human being.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Unique March Holidays and Fun Ways to Celebrate Them

Marchs signature holiday may be St. Patricks Day, but there are plenty of little-known holidays throughout the month. Unique holidays can be the most fun to celebrate. Add some fun learning opportunities to your school calendar this month by celebrating these unique March holidays. Dr. Seuss Day (March 2) Theodor Seuss Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, was born on March 2, 1904, in Springfield, Massachusetts. Dr. Seuss wrote dozens of classic children’s books, including  The Cat in the Hat, Green Eggs and Ham, and One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish Blue Fish. Celebrate his birthday with some of the following ideas: Use food coloring to enjoy a breakfast of green eggs and ham.The book  Green Eggs and Ham was written using only 50 words. Try writing a story of your own using those same 50 words.Throw a Dr. Seuss birthday party.Make Cat in the Hat cookies World Wildlife Day (March 3) Celebrate World Wildlife Day by learning more about the creatures that inhabit our world. Choose a unique animal to research. Use the library or online resources to discover facts such as where it lives; its habit; its life cycle and lifespan; what it eats; and what makes it unique.Visit a zoo, aquarium, nature preserve, or conservation center.Define the words endangered and extinct. Discover some examples of each and learn what steps we can take to help preserve endangered species. Oreo Cookie Day (March 6) Oreo, the best-selling cookie in the United States, consists of two chocolate cookies with a sweet, cream filling. The most obvious way to celebrate Oreo Cookie Day is to grab a handful of cookies and a glass of milk for a tasty treat. You might also try some of the following: Use Oreo cookies to demonstrate the phases of the moon.Learn about the history of Oreo cookies.Make Oreo truffles. Pi Day (March 14) Math lovers, rejoice! Pi Day is celebrated on March 14 – 3.14 – each year. Mark the day by: Answering the question,  what is pi?Reading  Sir Conference and the Dragon of Pi.Baking an actual pie.Doing something special – eat your pie, throw confetti – at 1:59 p.m. to reinforce the fact that the actual value of pi is 3.14159†¦ World Storytelling Day (March 20) World Storytelling Day celebrates the art of oral storytelling. Storytelling is much more than simply sharing facts. It’s weaving them into memorable tales that can be passed down from generation to generation. Check with your local library to see if they have lined up any special guests for World Storytelling Day.Invite your children’s grandparents to tell stories of their childhood. If the grandparents are stuck for ideas, try these storytelling suggestions.Allow each of your family members to try their hand at storytelling.Try some games to improve your storytelling technique. Poetry Day (March 21) Poems often trigger an emotional response, causing them to stay lodged in our memories for a lifetime. Writing poetry can be a wonderful emotional outlet. Try these ideas to celebrate Poetry Day: Learn about different types of poetry, such as  acrostic, Haiku, found poetry, couplets, etc.Try writing a few different types of poems.Choose a book or two of poetry to read from throughout the day.Illustrate your favorite poem.Try memorizing a new poem.Learn about a famous poet. Make Up Your Own Holiday Day (March 26) Can’t find a holiday to suit you? Make up your own! Turn it into a learning opportunity for your homeschooled students by inviting them to write a paragraph describing their made-up holiday. Be sure to  answer why and how it is celebrated. Then, commence celebrating! Pencil Day (March 30) Despite its obscure history, Pencil Day should be celebrated by homeschoolers worldwide  Ã¢â‚¬â€œ because who is better at losing pencils than we are? They disappear at an alarming rate rivaled only by single socks that disappear from the dryer. Celebrate Pencil Day by: Going on a search and rescue mission for all the missing pencils in your home.Learn about some notable pencil users.Make a pencil cake.Purchase pencils to donate to organizations who supply school supplies to needy children. These little-known holidays can add an air of festivity to each week throughout the month. Have fun!